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中国文化研究丛书:新编中国文化史
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图书名称 :中国文化研究丛书:新编中国文化史
书号 :9787544650076
版次 :1
作者 :郭尚兴
开本 :X16
页面 :584
装帧 :精装
语种 :不详
字数 :730

介绍

【简介】

 

本书用英文撰写,分为‘哲学与宗教”‘文学”‘艺术”‘科技”四大板块,以历史进程为经,以主要人物、流派、事件、文学作品等为纬,系统介绍了中国文化的渊源和精髓,并用历史唯物主义的观点,对有关人物和事件给予客观的分析和评价,向读者生动展现出从上古到清末这一历史时期中国文化的发展全貌。

 

全书内容详实,阐释深入,特色鲜明,对于弘扬中华文化、让世界了解中国具有十分重要的现实意义,对于实施‘一带一路”倡议也具有一定的影响。

 

Written in English, the book is mainly composed of"Philosophy & religion"" LiteratureScience & Technology". In light of the evolution of history, it unfolds a whole picture of the quintessence of the traditional Chinese culture to the reader through a series of representative personages events, theoretical schools and literary works in conjunction with the authors comprehensive analyses and evaluations to complement the history. 

 

The book features elaborate and reliable accounts as well as matter-of-fact comments. It is purported to boost the intercultural communication between the East and the West, and will prove to be of significance to the Belt-and-Road Initiative.

 

【PREFACE】

 

‘Culture” is one of the words that it is said to have been most popularly used in society, and at the same time, also a word that is by no means unambiguous or easy to define. Since British anthropologist Edward Burnet Tylor made the first definition in his Primitive Culture: Culture… is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. (NEB. V16.2005: 874) Nearly 200 definitions have been made by scholars from various fields up to now. According to NEB, culture is the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior. Culture, thus defined, consists of language, ideas, beliefs, customs, taboos, codes, institutions, tools, techniques, works of art, rituals, ceremonies, and other related components. The development of culture depends upon humans’ capacity to learn and to transmit knowledge to succeeding generations. (NEB. V3. 2005: 784)

 

As is well-known, China is a large country with a long history and multinationalities. Hence, Chinese culture, varied in form and rich in content, has been one of the most original, ingenious, and energetic traditions among all civilizations with the features of a miraculous continuity and unremitting enrichment. If every field mentioned above is covered, the book will be too large, even if it is possible. And what is more, it might not be necessary for most of the readers. Therefore, only four major fields have been chosen to write about: philosophy and religions, literature, arts, and science and technology, which are considered to be greatly needed, and only popular branches of each field are covered.

 

As is known, the author published the textbook, A History of Chinese Culture, in English more than 20 years ago, and it has become quite popular among students with tens of thousands of copies printed so far. This new version is based on that one. This version has the following features: First of all, the part of philosophy and religions is more systematic and detailed as it is the essential foundation of other cultural fields, such as literature and arts.

 

Secondly, many new ideas and achievements gained by scholars during these 20 years have been accepted and fused into this work.

 

Thirdly, from the point of carrying forward the merits of traditional Chinese culture, the author, on one hand, emphasizes the essential spirits and gives them high appraisal, and on the other, tries hard to make objective analyses of both the positive and negative sides.

 

Lastly, the work tries to show a full picture of each field it covers and gives a systematic description of the important figures and events according to its historical development.

 

Guo Shangxing(郭尚兴)

目录

【Contents】

 

PREFACE

Abbreviations

PART ONE PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION / 001

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION / 002

 I. Religious Beliefs in Ancient China / 002

 II. Political Beliefs in Ancient China / 004

 III. Philosophical Beginnings in Ancient China / 005

 IV. Great Development of Chinese Philosophy / 007

 V. Essential Features of Chinese Philosophy / 013

 CHAPTER TWO PHILOSOPHY IN THE PREQIN

PERIOD (1) / 016

 I. Confucianism / 016

1. Origins of Confucianism / 017

2. Master Kong and His Theories / 019

A. Master Kong’s Life / 019

B. On Heaven and Spirits / 021

C. On Governance by Virtue / 022

D. On Rites and Rectification of

Names / 023

E. On Humanity and the Cultivation of

One’s Virtues / 025

F. On the Doctrine of the Mean / 029

G. On Knowledge / 029

H. On Education / 031

3. Master Meng and His Theories / 033

A. Master Meng’s Life / 033

B. On Mind, Human Nature and

Humanity / 035

C. On Virtue Cultivation / 038

D. On Politics and Goverment / 041

E. On Economy / 042

4. Master Xun and His Theories / 044

 CHAPTER THREE PHILOSOPHY IN THE PREQIN

PERIOD (2) / 052

 II. Taoism / 052

1. Master Lao and His Theories / 052

2. Master Zhuang and His Theories / 055

3. Similarities and Differences between

Master Lao and Master Zhuang / 057

 III. Moism / 058

1. Master Mo and His Theories / 058

2. Later Moism / 061

A. On Cognition / 061

B. On Time and Space / 062

C. On the Relationships between

Names and Actualities / 063

D. On Logic Judgment and

Deduction / 064

 IV. The Legalist School / 065

 V. The School of Logicians / 067

1. Hui Shi and His Theories / 067

2. Gongsun Long and His Theories / 068

 VI. The Yin-Yang School / 069

 VII. Other Schools / 070

 CHAPTER FOUR PHILOSOPHY FROM THE

WESTERN HAN DYNASTY TO THE NORTHERN

AND SOUTHERN DYNASTIES / 073

 I. The Han Philosophers / 073

1. Dong Zhongshu and His Theories / 074

2. Wang Chong and His Theories / 079

II. Neo-Taoism in the Wei and Jin Period / 081

1. He Yan and Wang Bi and Their Theories / 084

2. Ruan Ji and Ji Kang and Their Theories / 086

 3. Xiang Xiu and Guo Xiang and Their Theories / 088

4. Fan Zhen’s Criticism of Buddhism / 089

 CHAPTER FIVE PHILOSOPHY DURING THE

SUI AND TANG DYNASTIES / 093

 I. Confucianism of the Sui Dynasty / 093

1. The Situation Unfavorable to Confucianism / 093

2. Wang Tong and His Achievements / 095

 II. Confucianism of the Tang Dynasty / 096

1. Confucianism of the Early Tang Dynasty and

the Compilation of Rectified Interpretations

of the Five Classics / 096

2. Han Yu and His Theories / 098

3. Li Ao and His Theories / 099

4. Liu Zongyuan and Liu Yuxi and Their Theories / 100

 CHAPTER SIX PHILOSOPHY DURING THE SONG

DYNASTY / 106

 I. Zhou Dunyi and His Theories / 107

 II. Shao Yong and His Theories / 109

 III. Zhang Zai and His Theories / 110

 IV. Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi and Their Theories / 112

 V. Zhu Xi and His Theories / 114

 VI. Lu Jiuyuan and His Theories / 116

 VII. Other Philosophers of the Song Dynasty / 117

 CHAPTER SEVEN PHILOSOPHY DURING THE MING

DYNASTY / 121

 I. Chen Xianzhang and His Theories / 123

 II. Zhan Ruoshui and His Theories / 125

 III. Wang Shouren and His Theories / 127

 IV. Other Ming Philosophers / 132

CHAPTER EIGHT PHILOSOPHY DURING

THE QING DYNASTY / 137

 I. Fang Yizhi and His Theories / 140

 II. Huang Zongxi and His Theories / 142

 III. Gu Yanwu and His Theories / 146

 IV. Wang Fuzhi and His Theories / 148

 V. Yan Yuan and His Theories / 153

 VI. Yan Ruoqu and Hu Wei and Their Theories / 155

 VII. Hui Dong and His Theories / 157

 VIII. Dai Zhen and His Theories / 158

CHAPTER NINE MODERN PHILOSOPHY / 165

 I. Gong Zizhen and His Theories / 166

 II. Wei Yuan and His Theories / 167

 III. Yan Fu and His Theories / 168

 IV. Tan Sitong and His Theories / 168

 V. Kang Youwei and His Theories / 169

 VI. Sun Zhongshan and His Theories / 171

 VII. Causes for the Decline of Confucianism / 173

CHAPTER TEN CONFUCIAN CLASSICS / 177

 I. Groupings of the Classics / 177

 II. The Five Individual Classics / 181

 1. The Book of Changes / 181

 2. The Book of History / 185

 3. The Book of Songs / 187

 4. The Book of Rites / 188

 5. The Spring and Autumn Annals / 193

 III. Controversies between the Modern-Script

School and the Ancient-Script School in the

Study of the Classics / 194

CHAPTER ELEVEN BUDDHISM / 198

 I. An Introduction to Buddhism / 198

1. Karma and Reincarnation / 198

2. The Four Noble Truths / 198

3. The Twelve Nidanas / 199

4. The Noble Eight-Fold Path / 199

5. Nirvana / 199

 II. Chinese Buddhism and Its Development / 200

1. The Tiantai School / 202

2. The Three-Treatise School / 203

3. The Consciousness-Only School / 203

4. The Huayan School / 204

5. The Pure Land School / 205

6. The Chan School / 205

7. Tibetan Buddhism / 207

 III. Monastic Community and Buddhist

Holidays / 209

 IV. Buddhism and Chinese Culture / 211

CHAPTER TWELVE RELIGIOUS TAOISM / 214

 I. Origins of Religious Taoism / 214

 II. Development of Religious Taoism / 216

 III. Principal Tenets and Practices / 219

 IV. Religious Taoism and Chinese Culture / 221

PART TWO LITERATURE / 225

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION / 226

CHAPTER TWO MYTHOLOGY / 230

 I. Myths about the Cosmos / 231

 II. Myths about Man / 232

 III. Myths about Heroes / 232

 IV. Myths about Gods / 233

 V. Myths about Animals / 234

CHAPTER THREE POETRY (1) / 236

 I. Poetry in the Pre-Qin Period / 236

 II. Poetry from the Han to the Northern and

Southern Dynasties / 239

 III. Poetry during the Tang Dynasty / 245

CHAPTER FOUR POETRY (2) / 260

 I. Poetry during the Song Dynasty / 260

 II. Poetry from the Yuan to the Ming Period / 268

 III. Poetry during the Qing Dynasty / 271

CHAPTER FIVE PROSE / 277

 I. Prose in the Pre-Qin Period / 277

 II. Prose during the Han, Wei and the Six Dynasties / 280

 III. Prose during the Tang and Song Dynasties / 283

 IV. Prose during the Ming and Qing Dynasties / 286

CHAPTER SIX FICTION / 292

 I. Fiction during the Han, Wei and the Six

Dynasties / 292

 II. Romances during the Tang Dynasty / 294

 III. Storytellers’ Scripts in the Song and

Yuan Period / 296

 IV. Fiction during the Ming Dynasty / 298

 1. Romance of the Three Kingdoms / 298

 2. Outlaws of the Marsh / 299

 3. Pilgrimage to the West / 300

 4. Jin Ping Mei / 301

 5. Short Stories / 302

 V. Fiction during the Qing Dynasty / 303

 1. Strange Tales of the Tale-Telling Studio / 303

 2. The Scholars / 304

 3. A Dream of Red Mansions / 305

 4. Flowers in the Mirror and The Travels of Lao Can / 306

CHAPTER SEVEN DRAMA / 310

 I. Miscellaneous Play during the Song Dynasty / 310

 II. Southern Drama during the Song and Yuan

Dynasties / 310

 III. Miscellaneous Drama during the Yuan

Dynasty / 312

 IV. Romance Drama during the Ming Dynasty / 315

 V. Drama during the Qing Dynasty / 320

PART THREE ARTS / 327

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION / 328

 I. The Beginning of Chinese Arts / 328

 II. Essential Spirit of Chinese Art / 330

 CHAPTER TWO CHARACTERS AND

CALLIGRAPHY / 332

 I. Characters / 332

1. Origin and Construction / 332

 2. Styles / 334

 II. Calligraphy / 336

CHAPTER THREE PAINTING / 345

 I. General Characteristics / 345

 II. Historical Development / 347

1. Chinese Painting Prior to the Han Dynasty / 347

2. Chinese Painting during the Wei-Jin and Northern

and Southern Dynasties / 348

3. Chinese Painting during the Sui and Tang

Dynasties / 349

4. Chinese Painting during the Song Dynasty / 351

A. Landscape Painting / 351

 B. Figure Painting / 353

C. Scholarly Painting / 353

D. Flower-and-Bird Painting / 354

 E. Genre Painting / 354

5. Chinese Painting during the Yuan Dynasty / 355

6. Chinese Painting during the Ming Dynasty / 356

7. Chinese Painting during the Qing Dynasty / 358

CHAPTER FOUR MUSIC / 363

 I. Music in the Pre-Qin Period / 363

 II. Music during the Qin and Han Dynasties / 366

 III. Music during the Wei, Jin, Northern and

Southern Dynasties / 367

 IV. Music during the Sui and Tang Dynasties / 369

 V. Music during the Song and Yuan Dynasties / 371

1. The Melody in Multi-modes and the

Drum-Song / 372

2. The Changzhuan Song / 372

 VI. Music during the Ming and Qing Dynasties / 373

CHAPTER FIVE DANCE / 377

 I. Dance in the Pre-Qin Period / 377

1. Shaman Dances and Dances of Exorcism / 378

2. Dancing Slaves / 379

3. Court Dance / 379

4. Folk Dance / 380

 II. Dance from the Han to the Northern and

Southern Dynasties / 381

1. Variety Shows of the Han Dynasty / 381

2. Some Other Famous Forms of Dance during the

Han Dynasty / 382

A. Disc Drum Dance / 382

B. Scarf Dance / 382

3. Exchanges of Dance between Different

Nationalities / 383

 III. Dance during the Tang Dynasty / 384

IV. Dance since the Song Dynasty / 388

CHAPTER SIX THEATRE / 393

 I. Theatrical Elements in Ancient Life / 393

 II. Beginning of the Dramatic Representation / 394

 III. Southern Drama during the Song and Yuan

Dynasties / 397

 IV. Miscellaneous Drama during the Yuan and Ming

Dynasties / 398

 V. Romance Drama during the Ming and Qing

Dynasties / 401

1. Haiyan Opera / 402

2. Yiyang Opera / 402

3. Yuyao Opera / 402

4. Qingyang Opera / 402

5. Kunshan Opera / 402

 VI. Beijing Opera and Other Regional Counterparts

during the Qing Dynasty / 403

CHAPTER SEVEN CLASSICAL GARDENS / 411

 I. Historical Development / 411

 II. Components of Classical Gardens / 415

1. Hills / 415

2. Rocks / 415

 3. Water / 416

4. Architecture / 416

 5. Plants / 418

PART FOUR ANCIENT SCIENCE AND

TECHNOLOGY / 421

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION / 422

 I. The Beginning of Science and Technology

in China / 423

II. The Characteristics of Chinese Science and

Technology / 425

 III. Why China Lagged behind in Science and

Technology in Modern Times / 427

 CHAPTER TWO THE FOUR GREAT INVENTIONS / 428

 I. Gunpowder / 428

 II. Compass / 429

 III. Paper / 431

 IV. Printing / 432

 CHAPTER THREE TRADITIONAL CHINESE

MEDICINE / 436

 I. The Theoretical Basis / 436

1. The Theory of Yin and Yang Forces / 436

2. The Theory of the Five Elements / 437

 II. Basic Characteristics of TCM / 440

1. The Concept of the Organic Whole / 440

2. Diagnosis and Treatment Based on an Overall

Analysis of Signs and Symptoms / 441

 III. Diagnostic Methods / 441

 IV. A Brief History of TCM / 443

 CHAPTER FOUR ACUPUNCTURE AND

MOXIBUSTION / 449

 I. The Theoretical Basis / 449

 II. A Brief History of Acupuncture and

Moxibustion / 450

 III. The Spread of Acupuncture and Moxibustion / 453

CHAPTER FIVE CHINESE QIGONG / 455

 I. The Concept of Qigong and Its Theoretical

Basis / 455

 II. Contents of Qigong / 456

1. Mind Concentration Method / 457

2. Breath-Following Method / 457

3. Breath-Counting Method / 458

4. Silent Reading Method / 458

5. Breath-Listening Method / 458

 6. Mental Looking Method / 458

 III. Schools of Chinese Qigong / 458

 IV. A Brief History of Qigong / 459

CHAPTER SIX CERAMICS / 463

 I. Pottery / 463

 II. Porcelain / 466

1. Ding Porcelain / 469

2. Yaozhou Porcelain / 469

3. Ruzhou Porcelain / 470

 4. Guan Porcelain / 470

5. Jun Porcelain / 470

 6. Longquan Porcelain / 471

 7. Misty Blue Porcelain / 471

References / 476

Appendix / 488

Contents of Figures

Postscript

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