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中国概况(英文版)
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图书名称 :中国概况(英文版)
书号 :9787544658089
版次 :1
作者 :程爱民主编;(澳) 陈杨国生等译
开本 :16
页面 :291
装帧 :平装
语种 :英语
字数 :545

介绍

【简介】

 

This textbook is based on the ‘Three-level Indicator Syllabus” of the required course ‘Understanding China” and jointly created by experts and scholars from a dozen top Chinese universities. It aims to display China in a panoramic way and reflect ‘Chinese thought”, ‘Chinese experience”, and the great achievements in contemporary China’s economic and social development.

 

Systematic and comprehensive: The textbook consists of multi-layered materials about China specially designed for foreigners. It strives to be close to their thinking, learning and living habits. Over 200 carefully selected topics are presented and explained in 14 chapters, including Chinese history, geography, philosophy, religion, literature and art, science and technology, economy, education, medicine, sports, and cultural heritage. Teachers and students can freely combine into personalized teaching materials according to their specific teaching or learning needs.

 

Rich and multi-dimensional: The textbook has two complimentary parts: online videos and paper teaching materials, while all the content is developed in groups and divided into three levels of indicators. The first-level indicators are compulsory and suitable for all schools and all students, while the second-level indicators are elective and the third-level indicators are for research purposes.

 

Open and sharing: Based on the Internet+ related theories, a digital teaching resource bank has been built according to the syllabus. This is a means to realize cross-regional and cross-disciplinary online and offline teaching activities, promote different in-class and extracurricular interactions, combine classroom teaching and social practice, and finally enhance students’ independent studying ability.

 

【Foreword】

 

‘There is a dragon in the far east, and her name is China.” 

 

This line from the 1980s song ‘Descendants of the Dragon” was an anthem of a rising Chinese pride. As China had only begun to enact enormous systemic reforms in the late 1970s, that ‘dragon in the far east” had begun to slowly awaken from a long slumber. Forty years later, that dragon has woken up fully, and China has experienced a period of unimaginable change. Its development has not only exceeded the imaginations of its own citizens, but also, the world. 

 

With the rapid development of China’s economy and increasing international exchange, it has become a place that is no longer overlooked. It has become an indispensable part of the world’s economy and culture, as well as one of its driving forces. Across the globe, the Chinese thought, the Chinese experience, the Chinese model, and the Chinese manufacturing are gaining attention. China’s Belt and Road Initiative, proposed in 2013, has obtained strong international support and attention while China’s rapid progress in so many areas has attracted tens of thousands of foreign students to its shores. 

 

However, this enormous country, composed of 56 ethnic groups and with 5,000 years of traditional culture, is still somewhat mysterious to many foreigners. In the eyes of some Westerners, almost all Chinese people are Kung Fu masters, and there are pandas everywhere. In many countries, in almost any medium- and large-sized city, you can hear people of different colors say ‘Ninhao” (hello), ‘Zaijian” (good bye), but how many people really understand China? What is ‘Yin and Yang” and what does ‘Qi” actually mean? How does one pay for something on WeChat? Although one can scratch the surface, one cannot understand China through the media alone. 

 

In order to let international students studying in China better understand their host country, with guidelines from the Ministry of Education, Chinese universities are tasked to develop a compulsory course for international students called ‘Understanding China” or ‘A Survey of China”. It is a basic, public and general course in the core curriculum for international students, which requires a comprehensive, systematic and objective introduction to the basic content and knowledge of China and Chinese culture. Due to the great number of international students, as well as the variance in their nationality, educational levels, cultural and professional backgrounds, and their uneven Chinese proficiency, there are urgent pedagogical concerns that need to be addressed, especially the course syllabus, textbook, and teaching methods appropriate for this course. 

 

With the support from Peking University, Beijing Normal University, Nanjing University, Zhejiang University, Tianjin University, Harbin Institute of Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Wuhan University, Chongqing University, Shanghai International Studies University, South China Normal University, Jiangsu Normal University, andTang Chinese Education & Technology Ltd., experts and scholars from more than a dozen top Chinese universities have work out the initial ‘Three-level Indicator Syllabus” for this course. It is based on this syllabus that the present textbook Understanding China was born. 

 

The guiding principle for this textbook is to reflect comprehensively ‘Chinese thought”, ‘Chinese experience”, and the great achievements in contemporary China’s economic and social development. It is based on the following compilation concepts: systematic and comprehensive, rich and multi-dimensional, and open and sharing. 

 

1.Systematic and comprehensive: The textbook consists of multi-layered materials about China specially designed for foreigners. It strives to be close to their thinking, learning and living habits. The textbook covers Chinese history and geography, philosophy and religion, politics and economy, literature and art, science and technology, education, medicine and sports, among many others. The book comprises 14 chapters, with over 200 carefully selected content points, and displays China in a panoramic way. Teachers and students can freely combine into personalized teaching materials according to their specific teaching or learning needs. 

 

2.Rich and multi-dimensional: The textbook has two complimentary parts: online videos and paper teaching materials, while all the content is developed in the form of topics and divided into three levels of indicators. The first-level indicators are compulsory and suitable for all schools and all students to study, while the secondlevel indicators are elective and the third-level indicators are for research purposes. In fact, the second- and third-level indicators are designed for graduate students or students with different professional backgrounds or specific interests. 

 

3.Open and sharing: Based on the Internet+ related theories, a digital teaching resource bank has been built according to the syllabus. Universities participating in the construction and use of this textbook will jointly build and share relevant video and online courses. In this way we attempt to realize cross-regional and cross-disciplinary online and offline teaching activities, promote different in-class and extracurricular interactions, combine classroom teaching and social practice, and finally strive to enhance students’ independent studying ability. Therefore, the biggest feature of this textbook is its strong support of a digital teaching resource bank and other network resources, including videos, pictures, apps, micro-films and other multi-modal forms. This abundance of resources will maximize the teaching of various aspects of China and Chinese culture to international students and provide them with a vivid, enriching and engaging learning experience. 

 

China needs the world, and the world also needs China. It is our sincere hope that through learning Understanding China, all international students in China will have a better knowledge of this country and will be able to contribute to building a better future for themselves, for China, and for the world. 

 

Cheng Aimin 

May 2019

目录

CHAPTER 1 Geography 2

I A Look at China from the World 2

1. China’s Geographical Location 2

2. Administrative Divisions in China 4

3. Population and Ethnicity 5

II China’s Natural Environment 7

1. China’s Topography and Landforms 7

2. The Mountains in China 10

3. The Rivers in China 12

III Famous Chinese Cities 15

1. Beijing 15

2. Shanghai 17

3. Hong Kong 19

IV Tour in China 21

1. A Natural Journey 21

2. A Cultural Journey 28

Questions 31

 

CHAPTER 2 History 32

I Ancient Chinese History 33

1. The Yellow Emperor and the Formation of the Chinese Nation 33

2. Qin Shihuang and China’s Unification 34

3. Han Wudi and the Silk Road 36

4. Tang Xuanzong and the Kaiyuan Age of Prosperity 37

5. Song Taizu and the Economic Prosperity 38

6. Yuan Shizu and the Territorial Expansion 40

7. Ming Chengzu and Zheng He’s Voyages to the “Western Oceans” 41

8. Qing Gaozong and the Prosperity of the Kangxi and Qianlong Periods 42

II Modern Chinese History 44

1. The Opium Wars 44

2. The Revolution of 1911 45

3. The Birth of the Communist Party of China 46

4. The War of Resistance Against Japan 48

5. The War of Liberation 49

III Contemporary Chinese History 50

1. The Founding of the People’s Republic of China 50

2. The Diplomacy of the People’s Republic of China 52

3. The Reform and Opening-up 52

4. Entering a New Era 54

Questions 55

 

CHAPTER 3 Philosophy 56

I Key Figures in Confucianism 57

1. Confucius (Kong Zi) 57

2. Mencius (Meng Zi) 59

II The Core Teachings of Confucianism 61

1. Rites (Li) 61

2. Benevolence (Ren) and Benevolent Rule (Renzheng) 63

3. Dao, Li and the Investigation of Things for the Extension of Knowledge 64

III Zhou Yi, Yin & Yang and the Five Elements 65

IV Daoism 68

1. Lao Zi 68

2. Zhuang Zi 70

V Other Schools of Thought 71

1. Legalism 71

2. Militarists 73

Questions 75

 

CHAPTER 4 Religion 76

I Native Beliefs and Religions in China 77

1. Folk Beliefs 77

2. Ancestral Worship 79

II Daoism 80

III Buddhism 83

1. Introduction of Buddhism into China 83

2. Buddhist Doctrines, Chan (Zen) Buddhism, and Buddhist Attractions 85

IV Other Non-native Religions 88

1. Islam 88

2. Christianity 89

V Current Situation of Religions in China 90

Questions 91

 

CHAPTER 5 Literature & Art 92

I Different Phases and Genres of Chinese Literature 93

1. Different Phases of Chinese Literature 93

2. The Genres of Chinese Literature 94

II Ancient Chinese Literature 95

1. Pre-Qin Literature 95

2. Tang and Song Poetry 98

3. The Four Classical Novels 102

III Modern and Contemporary Literature 104

1. The Modernization of the Chinese Literature 104

2. Modern and Contemporary Authors and Their Works 105

3. New Era Literature 108

IV Traditional Chinese Operas 109

1. Development and Evolution of the Operas 109

2. Main Forms of Operas and Famous Repertoires 110

3. Major Themes 113

4. Artistic Characteristics 113

V Chinese Music 115

1. The Pentatonic Scale 115

2. Traditional Chinese Musical Concepts 115

3. Traditional Chinese Musical Instruments and Classic Works 117

4. Colorful Modern Music 119

Questions 123

 

CHAPTER 6 Language 124

I Languages in China 125

1. The Diversity of Languages and Characters in China 125

2. The Impact of the Chinese Characters on the World 125

II The Chinese Language 126

1. Putonghua and Dialects 126

2. Ancient Chinese and Modern Chinese 127

3. Idiomatic Phrases — Idioms, Proverbs, Common Sayings,

and Allegorical Sayings 128

4. Language Policy 129

III The Chinese Characters 130

1. The Interesting Origins of the Chinese Characters 130

2. The Development of the Chinese Characters 131

3. The Six Categories of the Chinese Characters 132

4. Traditional and Simplified Chinese 134

Questions 135

 

CHAPTER 7 Calligraphy & Painting 136

I Calligraphy 137

1. What is Calligraphy? 137

2. The Evolution of Chinese Calligraphy, Famous Calligraphers and

Their Masterpieces 138

3. The Creation of Calligraphy and Its Beauty 145

II Painting 149

1. Basic Knowledge of Chinese Painting 150

2. Artistic Features of Chinese Painting 151

3. Three Major Themes of Chinese Painting and the Representative Works 153

Questions 157

 

CHAPTER 8 Economy 158

I China’s Economy: Past and Present 159

1. Historical Changes of the Chinese Economy 159

2. The Current State of China’s Economy 161

3. The Natural Conditions of China’s Economic Development 161

4. Basic Policies and Systems of the Chinese economy 161

II China’s Three Major Industries 164

1. Agriculture 164

2. Industry 165

3. The Tertiary Industry 167

III China’s Economic Development 168

1. The New Normal of China’s Economy 168

2. Internet Plus 169

3. The Digital Economy 2.0 169

4. Economic Growth and Environmental Protection 170

5. Structural Adjustment and Regional Development 171

IV China’s Economy and the World Economy 172

1. The Shenzhen Special Economic Zone 172

2. Free Trade Zones 173

3. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank 173

4. The Belt and Road Initiative 173

V China’s Banking System 175

1. The People’s Bank of China 175

2. State-owned Banks 176

3. Private Banks 176

4. New Payment Methods 176

Questions 179

 

CHAPTER 9 Science & Technology 180

I Science and Technology in Ancient China 180

1. “Four Great Inventions” of Ancient China 180

2. Bronze Ware 183

3. Didongyi, the Chinese Seismoscope 184

 4. π 184

5. Science and Technology in Agriculture 185

6. Ocean Navigation 188

7. Astronomy 189

8. Ceramics 191

II Science and Technology in Present-day China 192

1. Hybrid Rice 192

2. China Railway High-speed (CRH) 193

3. “Two Bombs and One Star” 194

4. “China’s Sky Eye” 195

5. “Sunway — Taihu Light” Supercomputer 196

6. Jiaolong’s Ocean Explorations 197

7. Aerospace Science and Technology 197

8. Dry Hot Rock Mining 199

Questions 199

 

CHAPTER 10 Education 200

I School Education 201

1. Education in the Old Times 201

2. Modern Education 201

II Further Education 205

1. Diploma Education 205

2. Non-diploma Education 206

III Examination System 207

1. Ancient Imperial Examinations 207

2. Entrance Examinations of the Current Times 209

3. National Vocational Qualification Examination (NVQE) 211

IV International Education Exchanges and Cooperation 211

1. Confucius Institutes 211

2. International Schools 212

3. Belt & Road Education Programs 212

Questions 213

 

CHAPTER 11 Healthcare 214

I Chinese Healthcare: An Overview 215

1. Chinese Healthcare System 215

2. Traditional Chinese Medicine 217

II The Magic of Traditional Chinese Medicine 218

1. The Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine 218

2. The Core Concepts in Traditional Chinese Medicine 220

3. Acupuncture and Massage 222

4. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Life 223

III Entering the World of Chinese Medicinal 228

1. Chinese Medicinal 228

2. The Mystique of Chinese Medicinal Treatment 229

IV Traditional Chinese Medicine in the World 231

1. The Influence of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the World 231

2. The Internationalization of Traditional Chinese Medicine 232

Questions 233

 

CHAPTER 12 Sports & Wushu 234

I Traditional Chinese Sports 235

1. A Brief Introduction to Traditional Sports 235

2. Traditional Sports 236

II Sports in Modern China 237

1. Sports in Schools 237

2. Mass Sports 237

3. Competitive Sports 238

III China’s Sports in the World 239

1. China’s Sports and the Olympic Games 239

2. Exchanges and Cooperation in Folk Sports 240

3. Differences between the Chinese and Western Sports Concepts 240

IV Wushu — Martial Arts 241

1. The Origin and Development of Wushu 241

2. Classification of Wushu 242

3. Characteristics and Functions of Wushu 246

4. Cultural Aspects in Wushu 246

Questions 249

 

CHAPTER 13 Festivals & Cuisine 250

I Traditional Chinese Festivals 250

1. The Spring Festival 252

2. The Lantern Festival 254

3. The Dragon Boat Festival 256

4. The Mid-Autumn Festival 257

II Chinese Cuisine 258

1. Four Great Chinese Cuisines 259

2. Eating for Harmony 262

Questions 263

 

CHAPTER 14 Cultural Heritage 264

I Ruins 265

1. Human Civilization: The Peking Man 265

2. Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes 266

3. Amazing Engineering: Dujiangyan 267

4. Imperial Tombs: Ming Xiaoling and the 13 Ming Tombs 268

II Cultural Relics 269

1. The Largest Ritual Bronze Vessel: The Houmuwu Ding 269

2. Musical Instruments from the Warring States Period: The Zenghouyi Bells

270

III Ancient Architecture 271

1. Types of Ancient Chinese Architecture 271

2. Imperial Architecture: The Former Imperial Palace in Beijing 272

3. Traditional Courtyard Homes: Siheyuan 273

IV Ancient Gardens 275

1. The Imperial Garden: The Summer Palace 275

2. The Private Garden: The Humble Administrator’s Garden 276

V Intangible Cultural Heritage 277

1. Current Status of China’s Intangible Cultural Heritage Development 277

2. Representative Works of China’s Intangible Cultural Heritage 278

3. Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection in China 289

Questions 291

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